Old chennai-[madras city and madras state]- photo gallery-Chennai name originated in china-patnam



Old chennai-[madras city and madras state]- photo gallery-Chennai name originated in china-patnam

Major-General the Hon. Arthur Wellesley being received in durbar at the Chepauk Palace Madras by Azim al-Daula, Nawab of the Carnatic, 18th February 1805.--Artist: Chinnery, George (1774-1852) Medium: Watercolour with pencil, pen and ink Date: 1805




File:Plan of Fort St George and the City of Madras 1726.jpg
Plan of Fort St George,Chennai 1726







CHEPAUK PALACE, that genesis of the Indo-Saracenic School of architecture, is impossible to be seen in its handsome entirety today, hidden as it is by the buildings that have come up around it. Even its vast grounds are no longer visible, Chepauk Park is but a sad memory. And this sad stage of affairs is not wholly due to present-day development; it began when the `Government' of the time took over the palace and park 150 years ago.
When Mohammed Ali Wallajah, friend of the British, died, he was succeeded as the Nawab of Carnatic by his son Umdat-ul-Umrah, no favourite of the Council in Fort. St. George. Accusing him of having conspired with Tippu Sultan during the Fourth Mysore War, Lord Edward Clive sent his soldiers in to occupy the palace in 1801, annexed the Carnatic in consequence of the settlement of the Carnatic debts and reduced the Nawabocracy to a Titular Nawabship. When the last Titular Nawab, Ghulam Ghouse Khan Bahadur, died in 1855, the British decided to make its occupancy of the palace permanent by moving out of it, its chief occupant, thereafter to be known as the Prince of Arcot. After a series of moves, Amir Mahal became the home of the successive Princes of Arcot, who from 1868 began receiving a pension from the Government, various tax exemptions and the maintenance costs of their new home. These obligations are still met by the Government of India, honouring the agreements of the Victoria era, as they do for three other princes as well, those of Tanjore, Calicut and Oudh.
With Chepauk Palace now vacant, the Madras Government decided to legitimise its occupancy by putting up the property for sale in 1859. When Government was the only party that could meet the minimum asking price, it took over the ownership of Chepauk Palace and its host of outbuildings, Marine Villa by the Cooum and their 117 acres for Rs. 5.8 lakhs. And into the palace it moved several Government offices, beginning the process of decline.




http://www.antiquemapsandprints.com/SCANSb/b-6355.JPG

FORT GEORGE MADRAS(now chennai)





File:Plan de Madras 1764 Bellin.jpg
Plan of Fort St George,Chennai 1764


South East View of Fort St George, Madras


View from the Mess House of Poonamallee Fort
Water-colour painting of a view from the Mess House of Poonamallee Fort by an unknown artist, dated to circa 1810. Inscribed on the front in pencil is: 'Poonamallee Fort from the Mess House.' Poonamallee, near Chennai (Madras) in Tamil Nadu, was formally a garrison town for the British Army containing a hospital and ordnance depot. The fort shown here is heavily fortified with battered high masonry walls and round projecting bastions.


View of black [George] town, Madras 24841

View of black [George] town, Madras-Photograph Of Black Town in Madras, taken by Frederick Fiebig in c.1851. Madras was founded in 1639 by the British East India Company and was the first important English settlement in India. Black Town was originally the old native quarter and grew up outside the walls of Fort St George to the north on the seafront. In the 18th century, Europeans moved out of the fort and into Black Town. This is a view of a street with colonial buildings in the European section. As Madras grew, Black Town became the commercial centre of the city and developed a very high population density. Its grid pattern layout is the earliest example of English town planning on a large scale in India. Three broad streets intersected the town, with narrow, irregular streets running in between. Its name was officially changed to george Town after a visit by the Prince of Wales in 1906. Little seems to be known about Frederick Fiebig. He was probably born in Germany and became a lithographer (and possibly was also a piano teacher) in Calcutta, publishing a number of prints in the 1840s. In the late 1840s Fiebig turned to photography using the calotype process, producing prints that were often hand-coloured. His photographs includes several hundred views of Calcutta in the early 1850s, one of the earliest detailed studies of a city, a large hand coloured collection of which were bought by the East India Company in 1856, their first major acquisition of photographs. Among the roughly 500 pictures were views of Calcutta, Madras, Sri Lanka, Mauritius and Cape Town.

 

View of black [George] town, Madras 24842


 View of bridge over the Chintadrepettah River near the Government Gardens, Madras, built by Lieutenant Thomas Fraser
 View of bridge over the Chintadrepettah River near the Government Gardens, Madras, built by Lieutenant Thomas Fraser
 Water-colour drawing of a bridge over the Chintadrepettah River near the Government Gardens, Chennai (Madras) by Lieutenant Thomas Fraser (1776-1823) in 1805. Inscribed on the back in ink is: 'For Sir John Sinclair Bart of Ulster. View of the Bridge over the Chintadrepettah River near the Government Gardens at Madras. Constructed in the Years 1804 & 5 by Lieut Thomas Fraser of the Corps of Engineers.'
 View of Madras looking south from the fort, with main landmarks numbered

View of Madras looking south from the fort, with main landmarks numbered--Water-colour drawing of Madras (Chennai) looking south from the fort, with the main landmarks numbered by Edwin George Taynton (1809-1845), c.1838. Inscribed on the original label is: 'View along the South Beach. 1. Government House. 2. Banqueting Room (detached) 3. The Mount. 4. Palaveram. 5. Conspicuous Mosque. 6. Marine Bungalow, in Govt Garden. 7. The Ice House. 8. St Thome. Drawn with Camera Lucida by Capt Taynton from the Quarter Master Genl's Office in the Fort. The colouring is rather too cold.'Chennai (Madras) lies on the Bay of Bengal in the north-east corner of Tamil Nadu. It was founded in 1639 when Francis Day of the East India Company acquired land for a warehouse or ‘factory’ which was completed on 23 April 1640. The fort was constructed on the seafront in the early 1640s as the Company’s headquarters on the Coromandel Coast. It was initially a trading post and base for European residents, becoming the home of the Presidency government and one of India’s major ports and mercantile centres. Many historic buildings were erected within its confines, including the Accountant-General’s Office, used as Government House until 1799, the Secretariat, and St Mary’s Church, the oldest surviving Anglican church in Asia. It initially consisted of a rectangular enclosure with four bastions but was gradually expanded and strengthened with formidable parapets during the 17th and 18th centuries to protect it from the armies of the French, Dutch, the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and the Marathas. 

Old Ambulance
Madras Bank
Beach
Beach shore
Beach from top view
A View Fom light house top [ beach ]
Napiers Bridge 1895 [Near Beach]
Car Show room
Chennai Central 1925
Building Next to central
Central Railway Station
Egmore Railway Station
Egmore Railway Station Inside
Egmore Railway Station waiting room
ESPLANADE
Esplande
Harbour -1891
Mount Road Annasalai
Mount Road From another angle
Spencers Shoping world


Parade Ground
Parrys Corner-1890
PRESIDENCY-COLLEGE
Rippon Building
Senate House
Triplicane pycraft road




Refreshment stall in station - Madras Railway-1880.[photo taken before electric lights were discovered.3 big kerosene lantern can be seen hanging]


Domestic servants at Madras in Tamil Nadu, taken by Nicholas & Curths in c. 1870


Posed studio group of domestic servants at Madras in Tamil Nadu, taken by Nicholas & Curths in c. 1870, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections.
After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by John Forbes Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875. This image shows four domestic servants in a European household posed in the act of performing various tasks. It was shown at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 and is mentioned in Watson's exhibition catalogue.

Photograph of carpenters at work at Madras in Tamil Nadu, taken by Nicholas & Curths in c. 1870,

Carpenters and woodcarvers in Tamil Nadu come from the Kammaalar caste and the type of work performed is dictated by caste divisions. Carpenters produce complex carved work for temples, including temple cars, ornately carved front doors and verandah columns for houses, musical instruments and agricultural implements. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. Amateur photographers became increasingly interested in ethnography. In the early 1860s the Governor General of India Lord Canning commissioned ethnographical photographs for the whole of India

Photograph of bill collectors at Madras in Tamil Nadu, taken by Nicholas & Curths in c. 1870

After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by John Forbes Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875. This image of a group posed with bills at the doorway of a house is from the series of 'Photographs illustrating various native classes, occupations, &c....Native bill collectors,' shown at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 and mentioned in Watson's catalogue of the Vienna Exhibition.







Farmers Ploughing with Bullocks - 1880's




Indian Man and his Child Riding Ekka (Horse Cart) - 1880's

"A Strolling Minstrel at Madras Playing the Tingadee"*, 1876


1870-FISHER FOLK-MADRAS(CHENNAI)


Tiruchirapalli (1895)AND MADURAI 1800'S

Tiruchirapalli (1895)





Thirukazhikundram (1869)
Ramanadapuram (1784)

Madurai (1783)
Madurai (1797)
Madurai (1798)

Madurai (c.1860)

Tanjore (1869)





Tanjore (1778)

Tanjore (1858)

Tanjore (1868)

Tanjore (1869)

Curry & rice," on forty plates or, The ingredients of social life at "our station" in India. 3d ed. Published 1900 b


TRICHINOPOLY RAILWAY STATION IN SOUTH INDIA 1876-[UPPER PHOTO]








Cap Comorin [kanya kumari] 1834

India. Original steel engraving drawn by W. Daniell, engraved by J. C. Armytage. 1834. No title on the plate. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 14,5x10cm. Matted.


Cataracte De Pupanassum [paapa naasam falls]
India. Original steel engraving drawn by W. Daniell, engraved by J. H. Kernot. 1834. No title on the plate. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 14,5x10cm. Matted
 







http://www.archive.org/stream/curryriceonforty00atkiuoft
CLICK AND READ THE BOOK

poodalur 1946-men of "untouchable" caste-Source: Life Archive Hosted by Google Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White



*"Small Sport in India"*, from The Graphic, 1882




To India on P&O Steamer Cathay"*, 1883


*"Pig Sticking in India"*, from The Graphic, 1883


Quail Snaring with Trained Cattle"*, 1883


"Preparing for a Race Meeting"*, 1880






en Days' Sporting Trip in the Jungle of India"*, from The Graphic, 1880



"Lime Cutting in India"*, 1885




"An Unwelcome Visitor-- A Frequent Incident of Anglo-Indian Life"*, from The Graphic, 1879


Shooting the Ibex"*, 1880




*"Wood Carver, 1877


"The Modern Juggernauth"*, 1877


"Crossing a Nullah in the Terai"*,



Padding a Tiger"*, 1876




A Tiger Hunting Party"*, 1876



"Entry of the Prince of Wales into a City of India"*, 1876


*"On the Way to India: Southhampton"*, 1876


*"A Hindoo Mendicant Pilgrim"*, 1876





























































































































"A Strolling Minstrel at Madras Playing the Tingadee"*, 1876









"In the Synagogue of the White Jews, Cochin"*, Feb. 5, 1876 (with hand coloring)



export/import of ICE BY SHIP-BEFORE DISCOVERY OF REFRIGERATION




*"An Elephant Taking Care of Children"*, 1863



Shoeing a Bullock in India"*, 1864



Peruvian bark tree[cinchona tree-used in making quinine] plantation in the Neilgherry Hills"*, 1864




THE DawK WALLAH -1858 [POSTAL RUNNERS --MODERN SPEED POST!]



*"Hindoostanee Dhoolie, used by Hospitals and in the Field"*, 1857

Horse Carriage on a Small Bridge - Probably from Madras 1870's







Relief work during the great famine in South India (1876-78)

This photograph is contributed by scancorner.com, a scanning and photo digitization company.


Water Tank with Temple in Background - Madura, Tamil Nadu - 1890's




TERMINUS OF THE MADRAS RAILWAY, INDIA, (1878-1900?). ARTIST: UNKNOWN






This old photograph shows passengers boarding a train at Madurai station,photographed in verascope by Tartier in 1913.Found this photograph in a book named “FIRST CLASS-Legendary Train Journeys Around the World” by Patrick Poivre d’Arvor.






EGMORE RAILWAY STATION WAITING ROOM 1920






MADRAS(CHENNAI) CENTRAL RAILWAY STREET










The Main Street, Bangalore.
MAIN STREET BANGALORE 1890




FORT AT MADRAS

MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 2011

A wealthy [British] Indian merchant's home; man and woman at dining table served by turbanned natives 1880--HAND PULLED MAT PUNKAH(HAND POWERED FAN)SEEN ABOVE




St Mary's church codnor.info
St Mary's Church, Fort St George. Drawn and engraved by
J.W. Gantz, Vepery, 1841.

Fort St George Madras codnor.info
Fort St George, Madras, on the Coromandel Coast, 1754; painting by Jan Van Ryne


INDIA MAP 1760




Miseries of the First of the Month p75




The Burning System Illustrated p79
SATI



Missionary Influence or How to Make Converts p95



Labour in Vain or His Reverence Confounded p117

Qui Hi at Bobbery Hill p295

Qui Hi's Last March to adree Burrows's Go Down p321

100 Year Old Unseen Photos: Days of the Raj



The Yule Log in India--Bringing in the Ice"*, from The Graphic, 1889*"The Morning Ride"*, 1891 Dolce Far Niente: Life in an Indian Bungalow"*, 1896 *"An Indian Railway Station"*, 1854CHENNAI[ORIGINATED]FROM'CHINA- patnam'-there was a Chinese merchants town in ancient times ;according to 19 th century book by English man
['HOBSON AND DOBSON"BOOK WRITTEN IN 19 TH CENTURY BY ENGLISH MAN COL:YULE









































































































'CHENNA(CHINA?) PATNAM' CAN BE SEEN JUST NORTH OF 'MADRAS PATNAM'-1750's map







T

THE MEDIEVAL CHOLA EMPIRE AND I

(2) PERIOD OF RAJARAJA CHOLA - 1 (A.D.985-1014)

IN THE YEAR A.D.985 KING RAJARAJA CHOLA-1 (A.D.985-1014) ASCENDED THE THRONE AT THANJAVUR AS THE NEXT SUCCESSOR OF THE CHOLA KINGDOM. HE GRADUALLY CONQUERED THE NEIGHBOURING AND FAR LYING TERRITORIES WITHIN THE INDIAN CONTINENT FORMING A GREAT CHOLA EMPIRE.

IN THE PARALLEL PERIOD IN CHINA THERE EXISTED THE MIGHTY SUNG EMPIRE RULED BY A ROYAL DYNASTY NAMED THE NORTHERN SUNGS. THIS EMPIRE EMBRACED A REGION - MORE OR LESS THE RIGHT HALF OF THE PRESENT CHINA BELOW THE PRESENT BEIJING, WITH ITS CAPITAL CITY AT DONGJING (THE PRESENT CITY OF KAIFENG) ON SOUTHERN SIDE OF THE RIVER HWANG HO (YELLOW RIVER).

AT THE TIME OF OF ASCENSION OF RAJARAJA CHOLA - 1 ON THE CHOLA THRONE IN TAMIL NADU, THE EMPEROR TAI TSUNG (A.D.976-997) OF THE NORTHERN SUNG DYNASTY WAS RULING IN CHINA.

RAJARAJA CHOLA - 1 LAID A FIRM FOUNDATION TO THIS EMPIRE BY THE WITS OF HIS POLITICAL INGENUITY AND WELL STREAMLINED ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM BACKED BY A POWERFUL ARMY AND NAVAL POWER WHICH MADE IT TO GROW STEADILY INTO AN OVERSEAS EMPIRE.

DURING THIS PERIOD NAGAPATTINAM THE GREAT 'SEAPORT CITY' OF MEDIEVAL CHOLAS ON THE EAST COAST OF TAMIL NADU WAS WELL KNOWN TO THE TRADERS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA AND CHINA, AND THERE HAD BEEN ACTIVE SEA TRAFFIC BETWEEN TAMIL NADU AND THESE COUNTRIES ON ACCOUNT OF TRADE. AT THIS SEAPORT CITY THERE HAD BEEN TRADERS FROM EIGHTEEN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES INCLUDING CHINA, TRADING IN THEIR COMMODITIES AND SOME OF THEM SETTLED DOWN AT NAGAPATTINAM.

IN THE YEAR A.D.997 THE CHINESE EMPEROR TAI TSUNG DEMISED AND WAS SUCCEEDED BY EMPEROR CHENG TSUNG (A.D.998-1022) ON THE CHINESE THRONE.

THE FIRST CHOLA TRADE AND POLITICAL DELEGATION TO CHINA

EMPEROR RAJARAJA CHOLA - 1 LEARNT FROM THE CHINESE AND SOUTH-EAST ASIAN TRADERS AT NAGAPATTINAM ON THE GREATNESS OF THE NORTHERN SUNG EMPIRE OF CHINA, AND THE RULING CHINESE EMPEROR CHENG TSUNG OF THAT PERIOD. HE WITH A VIEW OF STRENGTHENING THE EXISTING TRADE RELATIONS WITH NEW POLITICAL RELATIONS WITH CHINA AND THE RELATIONS WITH THE OTHER COUNTRIES IN SOURH-EAST ASIA, DECIDED TO SEND A SPECIAL DELEGATION TO PAY HOMAGE TO THE CHINESE EMPEROR AND VISIT THE OTHER COUNTRIES.

IN THE YEAR A.D.1012 RAJARAJA CHOLA - 1 SENT FOR THE FIRST TIME A DELEGATION OF FIFTY TWO ENVOYS WITH FOUR GREAT OFFICERS HEADED BY HIS VICE MINISTER CHOLA SAMUDRAN (CHOLI-SAN-OUEN), HIS DEPUTY POU-KIA-SIN A JUDGE WENG WU AND GUARDS LEAD BY YA-KIN-KIA TRAVELLED FROM THANJAVUR (THE CHOLA INTERIOR CAPITAL CITY) TO NAGAPATTINAM (NA WU TAN SHAN) SEAPORT CITY ON THE WEST COAST (OF PRESENT INDIA) AND EMBARKED TO CHINA.

THEY TOUCHED IN AT SRI LANKA (CHOLI SEYLAN = NORTHERN HALF OF SRI LANKA UNDER THE RULE OF CHOLAS), AND AFTER SEVENTY SEVEN DAYS REACHED THE KINGDOM OF RAMMANADESA (TCHEN-PIN KUO) OF PRESENT LOWER MIYANMAR.

FROM HERE THEY TRAVELLED FOR SIXTY ONE DAYS AND REACHED THE KINGDOM OF KADAREM (KU LO KUO = KEDAH COUNTRY) OF THE PRESENT NORTH MALAYSIA ADJACENT TO SEA HAVING A MOUNTAIN NAMED THESUNGHAI BUJANG (ALSO KNOWN AS KU LO = KEDAH PEAK). THE ONLY OTHER ISLAND THEY STOPPED ON THE WAY WAS YI MO LO LI.

THEY SET SAIL FROM KADAREM FOR SEVENTY ONE DAYS ON THE WAY CALLED AT CHIA PA ISLAND, CHAN PU LAO ISLAND, AND CHOU PAO LUNG ISLAND, AND REACHED THE KINGDOM OF SRI VIJAYA (SAN FO CHI KUO - PALEMBANG COUNTRY) OF THE SRI VIJAYA EMPIRE ON THE LOWER EAST SUMATRA OF PRESENT INDONESIA, RULED BY THE BUDDHIST EMPEROR MARA VIJAYOTUNGAVARMAN (A.D.1008-1020).

THE DELEGATION AGAIN SET SAIL FOR ANOTHR EIGHTEEN DAYS AND CROSSED MAN SHAN ISLAND, TOUCHED ATTIEN CHU ISLAND AND ARRIVED AT THE PIN TOU LANG ISLAND. THE LAST LEG OF THEIR SAIL FROM HERE TOOK ANOTHER TWENTY DAYS CALLNG AT LAN SHAN ISLAND AND CHIU HSING SHAN ISLAND AND FINALLY AT THE PI PA ISLAND AT THE KOUANG-TCHEU PORT (THE 'CANTON PORT' NOW KNOWN AS GUANGZHOU PORT) IN THE SOUTH OF CHINA (OPPOSITE PRESENT TAIWAN ISLAND).

THE CHOLA DELEGATION REACHED THE PORT OF KOUANG-TCHEOU PORT OF CHINA IN THE YEAR A.D.1015 (IN THE 8TH 'REIGN YEAR 'TA-TCHONG-SIANG-FOU' OF EMPEROR CHENG SUNG) AFTER 1150 DAYS FROM THE TIME THEY LEFT THE CHOLA COUNTRY (IN THE YEAR A.D.1012), AND OF THIS TOTAL TIME TAKEN 247 DAYS WAS ENTIRELY FOR THE SEA TRAVEL. HENCE IT IS VERY CLEAR THE BALANCE 903 DAYS BEING AROUND TWO AND HALF YEARS WERE SPENT AT THE KINGDOMS OF RAMMANADESA, KADAREM AND SRI VIJAYA.

PROBABLY THE OBJECTIVE OF THE EMPEROR RAJARAJA CHOLA - 1 IN SENDING A BIG DELEGATION TO SOUTH-EAST ASIA IN ADDITION TO THEIR INTENDED OFFICIAL HOMAGE TO THE EMPEROR CHENG SUNG OF CHINA, WAS TO BUILD NEW POLITICAL AND TRADE RELATIONS WITH THE KINGDOMS OF RAMMANADESA, KADAREM AND SRI VIJAYA EMPIRE, HEADED BY ONE OF HIS FOUR HIGH RANKING OFFICERS OF HIS EMPIRE THE CHOLI SAMUDRAN.









ZHENG HE
STATUE FROM A MODERN MONUMENT TO ZHENG HE AT THE STADTHUYS MUSEUM IN MALACCA TOWN, MALAYSIA.
BORN
1371
DIED
1433
OTHER NAMES
CHINESE: 馬三寶
OCCUPATION
TITLE

Zheng was the greatest adventurer...tho they still disputing the American discovery...

his voyage was the world's largest armada with 8000 sailors on 300 ships

then about 80 yrs later, Columbus took off with his tiny fleet with only 90 sailors on 3 ships...



Zheng He's ship compared to Columbus


CHINA'S FIRST STANDING NAVY VS THE CHOLA KINGS OFSOUTH INDIA


A Song era junk ship, 13th century; Chinese ships of the Song period featured hulls with watertight compartments.
As the once great Indian Ocean maritime power of the Chola Dynasty in medieval India had waned and declined, Chinese sailors and seafarers began to increase their own maritime activity in South East Asia and into the Indian Ocean. Even during the earlier Northern Song period, when it was written in Tamil inscriptions under the reign of Rajendra Chola I that Srivijaya had been completely taken in 1025 by Chola's naval strength, the succeeding king of Srivijaya managed to send tribute to the Chinese Northern Song court in 1028.[84] Much later, in 1077, the Indian Chola ruler Kulothunga Chola I (who the Chinese called Ti-hua-kia-lo) sent a trade embassy to the court of Emperor Shenzong of Song, and made lucrative profits in selling goods to China




Ming dynasty


Stele installed in Calicut by Zheng He(modern replica)

Chinese fishing nets in Kochi, Kerala, India.
Between 1405 and 1433, the Ming Dynasty China sponsored a series of seven naval expeditions.Emperor Yongle designed them to establish a Chinese presence, impose imperial control over trade, and impress foreign people in the Indian Ocean basin. He also might have wanted to extend the tributary system, by which Chinese dynasties traditionally recognized foreign peoples.
Admiral Zheng He was dispatched to lead a series of huge naval expeditions to explore these regions. The largest of his voyages included over 317 ships and 28,000 men, and the largest of histreasure ships were over 126.73 m in length. During his voyages, he visited numerous Indian kingdoms and ports. On the first three voyages, Zheng He visited southeast Asia, India, andCeylon. The fourth expedition went to the Persian Gulf and Arabia, and later expeditions ventured down the east African coast, as far as Malindi in what is now Kenya. Throughout his travels, Zheng He liberally dispensed Chinese gifts of silk, porcelain, and other goods. In return, he received rich and unusual presents from his hosts, including African zebras and giraffes that ended their days in the Ming imperial zoo. Zheng He and his company paid respects to local deities and customs, and in Ceylon they erected a monument (Galle Trilingual Inscription) honouring Buddha, Allah, andVishnu.

Early 17th century Chinese woodblock print, thought to represent Zheng He's ships.
The Galle Trilingual Inscription was a stone tablet inscription in three languages, Chinese,Tamil and Persian, that was erected in 1411 in Galle, Sri Lanka to commemorate the second visit to the island by the Chinese admiral Zheng He. The text concerns offerings made by him and others to the recorded offerings he made to the Buddhist Temple on the Mountain of Sri Lanka,Allah and the God of Tamils Tenavarai Nayanar, an incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. The admiral invoked the blessings of Hindu deities here for a peaceful world built on trade.[1] It was discovered in Galle in 1911 and is now preserved in the Colombo National Museum.


Galle inscription (modern replica), top half










Galle inscription (modern replica), top half shows tamil writing and chinese.
The tablet was found by an engineer, S. H. Thomlin, in 1911 in Galle. It can now be seen in the national museum in Sri Lanka. A modern replica of he stele has been installed in the Treasure Boat Shipyard Park in Nanjing, along with copies of other steles associated with the voyages of Zheng He.

Accounts of medieval travellers about chinese trade with india 1347

The characteristics of the Chinese ships of the period are described by Western travelers to the East, such as Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo. According to Ibn Battuta, who visited China in 1347:
We stopped in the port of Calicut, in which there were at the time thirteen Chinese vessels, and disembarked. China Sea traveling is done in Chinese ships only, so we shall describe their arrangements. The Chinese vessels are of three kinds; large ships called chunks (junks), middle sized ones called zaws (dhows) and the small ones kakams. The large ships have anything from twelve down to three sails, which are made of bamboo rods plaited into mats. They are never lowered, but turned according to the direction of the wind; at anchor they are left floating in the wind. Three smaller ones, the "half", the "third" and the "quarter", accompany each large vessel. These vessels are built in the towns of Zaytun and Sin-Kalan. The vessel has four decks and contains rooms, cabins, and saloons for merchants; a cabin has chambers and a lavatory, and can be locked by its occupants. This is the manner after which they are made; two (parallel) walls of very thick wooden (planking) are raised and across the space between them are placed very thick planks (the bulkheads) secured longitudinally and transversely by means of large nails, each three ellsin length. When these walls have thus been built the lower deck is fitted in and the ship is launched before the upper works are finished." (Ibn Battuta)
The first mentions of Chinese traders comes from Ceylon which was also a focal point of Arabic Red sea traders. Early mentions of far eastern sailors can also be found in ‘Cosmas Indicopleustes’ which was written around the 6th century and mentions goods from China. It is also known that Canton had Arab & Indian colonies at the port as early as 200AD. Trade existed between India and China as early as 2nd century AD, over Northern Pegu (Burma) but this was mainly overland. Maritime trade with Chinese ships started in the early decades of the 7th century first via Siam (Thailand). Nevertheless there are allusions to extensive trade which Coriander mariners conducted between the shores of Malabar, Coromandel ports,Ceylon, Indonesia and even Indo-China even before that. Documentation though is very difficult to come by.


Chinese shipping started roughly between the 9th and 12th centuries and touched the Malay, Indonesian and other Far Eastern ports. The lucrative trade was run directly by the Chinese monarchies. By the 12th century Chinese junks (square in shape and built like grain measures) seem to have started calling at Quilon. By the 12th century the Chinese compare themselves to Arab ships stating that while their ships housed several hundred men, the ones from the Arab side were much bigger and housed a thousand.

Chau Jhu-kua
, an inspector of foreign trade at the customs department in Quanzhou (Fukien – Fujian) a.k.a Zeytoun, then (Information collected from around 1211 and completed by 1225) documents (together with another man called Chou Ku Fei) for the first time whatever knowledge he has heard in the ports about the seas, the ports of call, the ships and the material traded. The second volume lists all the traded goods and their characteristics.
He describes Malabar:-

Malabar (Nan-pi)


The Nan pi country is in the extreme south west. From San fo tsi, one may reach it with the monsoon in a little more than a month. The capital of the kingdom is styles Mie-a-mo (Malabar) which has the same expression as the Chinese expression Lissi.

The ruler of the country has his body draped, but goes barefooted. He wears a turban and loin cloth, both of white cotton cloth. Sometimes he wears a white cotton shirt with narrow sleeves. When going out he rides an elephant and wears a golden hat ornamented with pearls and gems. On his arm is fastened a band of gold, and around his leg is a golden chain.

Among his regalia is a standard of peacock feathers on a staff of vermillion color, over twenty men guard it round. He is attended by a guard of some five hundred picked foreign women chosen for their fine physiques. Those in front lead the way with dancing, their bodies draped, bare footed and with a cotton loin cloth. Those behind ride horses barebacked, they have a loincloth, their hair is done up and they wear necklaces of pearls and anklets of gold, their bodies are perfumed with camphor and mush and other drugs, and umbrellas of peacock feathers shield them from the sun.

In front of the dancing woman are carried the officers of the king’s train, seated in litters (bags) of white foreign cotton and which are called pu-toi-kiou and are borne on poles plated with gold and silver.

In this kingdom there is much sandy soil, so when the king goes forth, they first send an officer with an hundred soldiers and more to sprinkle the ground so that the gusts of wind may not whirl up the dust.

The people are very dainty in their diet; they have a hundred ways of cooking their food, which varies every day.

There is an officer called Han-Lin who lays the viands and drinks before the king, and sees how much food he eats, regulating his diet so that he may not exceed the proper measure. Should the king fall sick, through excess of eating, then (this officer) must taste his faeces and treat him according as he finds them sweet or bitter.

The people of this country are of a dark brown complexion, the lobes of their ears reach down to their shoulders. They are skilled in archery and dexterous with their swords and lances; they love fighting and ride elephants to battle, when they also wear turbans of colored silks.

They are extremely devout Buddhists.





The climate is warm, there is no cold season, Rice hemp, beans, wheat, millet, tubers and green vegetables supply their food, they are abundant and cheap. They cut an alloyed silver into coins, on these they stamp an official seal. The people use it in trading. The native products include pearls, foreign cotton stuff of all colors (i.e. colored chintzes) and tou-lo mien (cotton cloth).

There is in this country a river called the Tan shui kiang which at a certain point where its different channels meet becomes very broad. At this point its banks are bold cliffs in the face of which sparks (lit stars) can constantly be seen and these by their vital powers fructify and produce small stones like cat’s eyes clear and translucid. These lie buried in holes in these hills until some day they are washed out by the rush of a flood when the officials send men in little boats to pick them up. They are prized by the natives.

The following states are dependent on this country of Nan pi. (City names in brackets provided by Rockhill, and are assumptions)

Ku-Lin (Quilon)
Fong ya Lo (Mangalore)
Hu Cha La (Gujarat)
Ma li mo (Malabar)
Kan Pa i (Cambay)
Tu nu ho (Salsette island - Bombay)
Pi li sha ( Broach)
A li jo ( Eli mala – Cannanore)
Ma lo hua (malwa)
Au lo lo li (Cannanore or Nellore)

The country of Na Pi is very far away and foreign vessels rarely visit it. Shi lo pa chi li kan father and son, belong to this race of people, they are now living in the Southern suburb of the city of tsuan (chou fu)







The King of Cochin -1506-IN PROCESSION


Its products are taken thence to ki lo tu sung and San fo tai abd the following goods are exchanged in bartering for them: Ho-chi silks, porcelain ware, camphor, rhubarb, cloves, sandalwood, cardamoms and gharu-wood.

Ku-lin may be reached in five days from the monsoon from Nan Pi. It takes a tsuan chou ship over forty days to reach lang Li (Lan wuli) there the winter is spent and the following year, a further voyage of a month will take it to this country.

The customs of the people on the whole are not different from those of the Nan Pi people. The native products comprise cocoanuts and sandalwood, for wine they use a mixture of honey with coconuts and the juice of a flower which they ferment.

They are fond of archery; in battle they wrap their hair in silken turbans.

For the purpose of trade they use coins of gold and silver, twelve silver coins are worth one gold coin. The country is warm and has no cold season.

Every year ships come to this country from San fo Tsi, Kien-pi and Ki-to and the articles they trade are the same as in Nan pi.

Great numbers of Ta-shi live in this country. Whenever they have taken a bath they anoint their bodies with yu-kin as they like to have their bodies gilt like that of the Buddha.



The route of the 7th voyage of Zheng He's fleet. Solid line: main fleet; dashed line: a possible route of Hong Bao's squadron; dotted line: a trip of seven Chinese sailors, including Ma Huan, fromCalicut to Mecca on a native ship. Cities visited by Zheng He's fleet or its squadron on the 7th or any of the previous voyages are shown in red.


MarcoPoloMap


Returning home from China in 1292 CE, Marco Polo arrives on the Coromandel Coast of India in a typical merchant ship with over sixty cabins and up to 300 crewmen. He enters the kingdom of the Tamil Pandyas near modern day Tanjore, where, according to custom, ‘the king and his barons and everyone else all sit on the earth.’ He asks the king why they ‘do not seat themselves more honorably.’ The king replies, ‘To sit on the earth is honorable enough, because we were made from the earth and to the earth we must return.’ Marco Polo documented this episode in his famous book, The Travels, along with a rich social portrait of India that still resonates with us today:
Museum03The climate is so hot that all men and women wear nothing but a loincloth, including the king—except his is studded with rubies, sapphires, emeralds and other gems. Merchants and traders abound, the king takes pride in not holding himself above the law of the land, and people travel the highways safely with their valuables in the cool of the night. Marco Polo calls this ‘the richest and most splendid province in the world,’ one that, together with Ceylon, produces ‘most of the pearls and gems that are to be found in the world.’
The sole local grain produced here is rice. People use only their right hand for eating, saving the left for sundry ‘unclean’ tasks. Most do not consume any alcohol, and drink fluids ‘out of flasks, each from his own; for no one would drink out of another’s flask.’ Nor do they set the flask to their lips, preferring to ‘hold it above and pour the fluid into their mouths.’ They are addicted to chewing a leaf calledtambur, sometimes mixing it with ‘camphor and other spices and lime’ and go about spitting freely, using it also to express serious offense by targeting the spittle at another’s face, which can sometimes provoke violent clan fights.
Nandi1They ‘pay more attention to augury than any other people in the world and are skilled in distinguishing good omens from bad.’ They rely on the counsel of astrologers and have enchanters called Brahmans, who are ‘expert in incantations against all sorts of beasts and birds.’ For instance, they protect the oyster divers ‘against predatory fish by means of incantations’ and for this service they receive one in twenty pearls. The people ‘worship the ox,’ do not eat beef (except for a group with low social status), and daub their houses with cow-dung. In battle they use lance and shield and, according to Marco, are ‘not men of any valor.’ They say that ‘a man who goes to sea must be a man in despair.’ Marco draws attention to the fact that they ‘do not regard any form of sexual indulgence as a sin.’
Museum06Their temple monasteries have both male and female deities, prone to being cross with each other. And since estranged deities spell nothing but trouble in the human realm, bevies of spinsters gather there several times each month with ‘tasty dishes of meat and other food’ and ‘sing and dance and afford the merriest sport in the world,’ leaping and tumbling and raising their legs to their necks and pirouetting to delight the deities. After the ‘spirit of the idols has eaten the substance of the food,’ they ‘eat together with great mirth and jollity.’ Pleasantly disposed by the evening entertainment, the gods and goddesses descend from the temple walls at night and ‘consort’ with each other—or so the priest announces the next morning—bringing great joy and relief to all. ‘The flesh of these maidens,’ adds Messer Marco, ‘is so hard that no one could grasp or pinch them in any place. ... their breasts do not hang down, but remain upstanding and erect.’ For a penny, however, ‘they will allow a man to pinch [their bodies] as hard as he can.’
JainsDark skin is highly esteemed among these people. ‘When a child is born they anoint him once a week with oil of sesame, and this makes him grow much darker’ (replaced since by ‘Fair & Lovely’ creams!). No wonder their gods are all black ‘and their devils white as snow.’ A group of their holy men, the Yogis, eat frugally and live longer than most, some as much as 200 years. In one religious order, men even go stark naked and ‘lead a harsh and austere life’—these men believe that all living beings have a soul and take pains to avoid hurting even the tiniest creatures. They take their food over large dried leaves. When asked why they do not cover their private parts, they say, ‘It is because you employ this member in sin and lechery that you cover it and are ashamed of it. But we are no more ashamed of it than of our fingers.’ Among them, only those who conquer sexual desire become monks. ‘So strict are these idolaters and so stubborn in their misbelief,’ opines Marco.
BrihadeshwaraTemple09Though the king here has 500 wives, he covets a beautiful wife of his brother—who rules another kingdom nearby, and as kings are wont to, also keeps many wives—and one day succeeds in ‘ravishing her from him and keeping her for himself.’ When war looms, as it has many times before, their mother intervenes, knife in hand and pointing at her breasts, ‘If you fight with each other, I will cut off these breasts which gave you both milk.’ Her emotional blackmail succeeds once again; the brother who has lost his woman swallows his pride and war is averted. But it is only a matter of time, thinks Marco, that the mother is dead and the brothers destroy each other.
The region breeds no horses but imports them from Aden and beyond. Over 2,000 steeds arrive on sh

Junk Keying travelled from China to the United States and England between 1846 to 1848.

A modern junk in Hong Kong







A replica of a merchant ship used by Ming Dynasty explorer Cheng Ho, being built in Nanjing. INSET: Salvagers raise the 800-year-old merchant ship.
A replica of a merchant ship used by Ming Dynasty explorer Cheng Ho, being built in Nanjing. INSET: Salvagers raise the 800-year-old merchant ship.

India and China

Chola Empire
சோழ நாடு
300s BC–1279
Chola's empire and influence at the height of its power (c. 1050)

There is lots of evidences to
prove during ancient period India had trade relations with foreign regions, especially with China.The
spread of Buddhism helped to strengthen India-China ties. Evidences suggest that from the time
of Kushana King Kanishka or from the first century AD Buddhist monks used to travel to China.
Central Asia and Afghanistan. It was from China that Buddhism spread to Japan and Korea.
India-China ties also led to the visits of Chinese Buddhist monks like Fa-Hsien, Hsuan-Tsang
etc. to India. The trade ties between India and China strengthened during the early centuries after
Christ. Before the sixth century AD trade between India and China was conducted through the
world famous Silk route.
Kerala- China
In India it was Kerala which had substantial trade ties with China. It is believed that during
ancient times Kerala had commercial links with China. Available evidence indicates that trade
ties existed between Kerala and Chiina dring the Perumal era (800AD-1122AD). Arab sailor
Sulaiman reports that the Chinese ships which came to Kollam had to pay a fixed tariff to the
local ruler. Trade between Kerala and China strengthened during the post Perumal period.
Travellers like Chou-Ju-Kua (1225 AD), Wang-Ta-Yuvan (1349 AD), Ma-Huvan (1409 AD)
and Fei-Xin (1436 AD) have written about Kerala-China trade ties.
The work of Tao-i-Chili of Wang-Ta-Yuvan has mentioned about the ports of Kerala. MaHuan’s account Ying-Yai Sheng-Lan (1433) describes “The country of the little Kolan (Kollam),
Kochin (Kochi), Kuli (Kozhikode) etc. and presents a lot of interesting information which include ethnographic details.Ma-Huan was a member of a trade delegation sent by Ming ruler
Yang Lo (1403-1425 AD) and Zheng He, the greatest navigator produced by China was the
leader of this trade delegation. “Between 1405 and 1433, the Chinese fleet, under the command
of famed eunuch Admiral Zheng He, visited the ports of Indian Ocean all the way up to East
Africa, transmitting Chinese culture and knowledge and exploring the Indian Ocean region. Early
in the 15th century Zheng He conducted as many as seven expeditions (1405-1432) and visited
Kollam, Kochi and Kozhikode several times. It has to be noted that the body of Zheng He was
immersed in the Arabian Sea. Fei-Xin, in his Travel on Wonder (1436) informs that pepper,
coconut, fish, betel nuts, etc were exported from Malabar in exchange for gold, silver, coloured
satin, blue and white porcelain beads, musk and camphor.




a historic drawing of Calicut before 1572


Joseph the Indian, visiting Europe in the 16th century, accompanying Cabarl (Read the linked Cabral’s hostages) on his voyage back to Lisbon states that the Moppilahs armed with the Zamorin’s backing destroys a Chinese settlement in Calicut over some trade dispute.
According to Jospeh, the Chinese left Calicut after this slaughter and after taking revenge on the people (late 14th century) finally shifting base to Mailapatam[MODERN MYLAPOUR?] under King Narasinga towards the sea of Cengala (also recreating dwellings and scenery like Calicut – De Barros) and leaving behind only a colony of half castes


WHO WAS THIS KING NARSINGA?
an account of what Vijayanagara was like in A.D. 1504 - 14 in the narrative of Duarte Barbosa, who visited the city during that period.:-Speaking of the "Kingdom of Narsinga," by which name the Vijayanagar territories were always known to the Portuguese, Barbosa writes: "It is very rich, and well supplied with provisions, and is very full of cities and large township



NARSINGA(VIJAYA NAGAR )1600
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Publisher : DE CLERCK, N.
Title : Narsinga. [India]
Published in Amsterdam, Cloppenburch, 1621.
------------------------------------------------------------




16th century map of india showing 'Maliapur'[MYLAPORE ]

SHOWS MELIAPOR[MYLAPUR]


OLIVIERI - Indostan gia impero del mogol. . .







RUPEE MADE CHINA PATNAM 1709:-



WORLD COINS. India. East India Company. Madras Presidency, Rupee, n the name of Aurangzeb, year 42 (Chinapatan ior 43 or 44, the last digit is not complete on the coin – Pridmore lists only year 42 of these years) (cf Pr 115; KM 279). About extremely fine, some toning at the edge.

Estimate: £40-60

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Baldwin's Auctions Ltd, Auctions 62-63, 1706
INDIAN COINS. MUGHAL. Shah ‘Alam I, Gold Mohur, Parenda, 1120, year 2 (KM 356.10), Rupee, Chinapatan 1123, year 5, struck by the East India Company (KM 347.7). First about very fine, test marks on edge, very scarce, the second very fine with a lit...

Brief presentation of retrieved records


Results 1-2 of 2
coin
Anonymous (ruler), Farrukhsiyar (1713-19), Chinapatan (mint)
Rupee (denomination), Indian (Series), Princely States (subseries), Madras Presidency (subsubseries)
Museum Accession Number: CM.IN.4404-R



coin
Anonymous (ruler), Farrukhsiyar (1713-19), Chinapatan (mint)
Rupee (denomination), Indian (Series), Princely States (subseries), Madras Presidency (subsubseries)
Museum Accession Number: CM.IN.4405-R

Filters

Department: South AsianX
Mint: ChinapatanX
Displaying records 1 to 15 of 15 total results.
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