Rani Velu Nachiar,sivaganga,south India 1730-1790-freedom fighter against british colonialists


Tamil Nadu to build memorial for freedom fighter Kuyili


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CHENNAI: The Tamil Nadu government has decided to honour freedom fighter Kuyili with a memorial in Sivaganga district.

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sivagangai velu nachiyar palace



Kuyili was a follower of Rani Velu Nachiar, the 18th century queen of Sivaganga. After her husband Muthuvaduganathaperiya Udaiyathevar was killed in a battle in 1780, Velu Nachiyar fought the British with help from Gopala Nayaker and Hyder Ali and won the battle. Her army commander Kuyili doused herself with oil, set herself ablaze and walked into a British storehouse of ammunition.

While a commemorative postage stamp on Rani Velu Nachiar 
 
 was released in 2008, the state will construct a memorial for Kuyili on the premises of the memorial being constructed for Velu Nachiar in Sivaganga.

The CM said a memorial would be constructed for philanthropist and educationist Swami Sagajananda of Chidambaram, who had worked for the welfare of the poor. She said the memorial for Dr BR Ambedkar on Greenways road in Mandaveli would also be renovated. 


Velu Nachiyar
Rani Velu Nachiyar was an 18th century Indian Queen from Sivaganga. Rani Velu Nachiyar is the first Queen of Tamil Origin to fight against the British in India.
 


Indian Stamps-Rani Velu Nachchiyar-By India Post
Rani Velu Nachiar and her daughter Vellachi Nachiar lived under the protection of Hyder Ali at Virupakshi near Dindigul. Frustrated by the joining of forces against him, the Nawab ordered that Velu Nachiar and Marudhu Brothers were permitted to return to Sivaganga and rule the country subject to payment of Kist to the Nawab. Abiding by this Order, Rani Velu Nachiar accompanied by Marudu brothers and Vellachi Nachiar entered Sivaganga. An agreement was reached where by Rani Velu Nachiar was permitted to govern the Sivaganga Country and Chinna Marudu, the younger was appointed her minister and the elder Vellai Marudu as the Commander-in-chief. Thus the widow Queen Velu Nachiar succeeded her husband in 1780.
Date Of Issue:-31.12.2008.




Velu Nachiyar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Rani Velu Nachiyar (Tamil: இராணி வேலு நாச்சியார்) was an 18th century Indian Queen from Sivaganga. Rani Velu Nachiyar is the first ...

Velu Nachiyar

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Rani Velu Nachiyar
Born 3 January 1730 Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu, India
Died the exact date of her death is not known (it was about 1790). Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu, India
Name Velu Nachiyar
Occupation Queen of Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, Circa 1760-1799
Succeeding State British India
Rani Velu Nachiyar (Tamil: இராணி வேலு நாச்சியார்) was an 18th century Indian Queen from Sivaganga. Rani Velu Nachiyar is the first Queen of Tamil Origin to fight against the British in India.[1]

Her life

She was the princess of Ramanathapuram and the daughter of Chellamuthu Sethupathy. She married the king of Siva Gangai and they had a daughter - Vellachi Nachiar. When her husband Muthuvaduganathaperiya udaiyathevar was killed, she was drawn into battle. Her husband and his second wife were killed by a few British soldiers and the son of the Nawab of Arcot. She escaped with her daughter, lived under the protection of Hyder Ali at Virupachi near Dindigul for eight years.[2] During this period she formed an army and sought an alliance with Gopala Nayaker and Hyder Ali with the aim of attacking the British. In 1780 Rani Velu Nachiyar fought the British with military assistance from Gopala Nayaker and Hyder Ali and won the battle. When Velu Nachiyar finds the place where the British stock their ammunition, she builds the first human bomb. A faithful follower, Kuyili douses herself in oil, lights herself and walks into the storehouse.[3] Rani Velu Nachiyar formed a woman's army named “udaiyaal” in honour of her adopted daughter — Udaiyaal, who died detonating a British arsenal. Nachiar was one of the few rulers who regained her kingdom and ruled it for 10 more years.[4]
Velu Nachiyar is the first queen who fought for the freedom against British in India and succeeded.
The Queen Velu Nachiar granted powers to Marudu brothers to administer the country in 1780. Velu Nachiar died a few years later, but the exact date of her death is not known (it was about 1790). Marudu brothers are the sons of Udayar Servai alias Mookiah Palaniappan Servai and Anandayer alias Ponnathal. They are native of Kongulu street of Ramnad. They belonged neither to the family of the ancient poligars nor to their division of the caste.[5]
On 31-December-2008, a commemorative postage stamp on her was released

Indian Joan of Arc-Veera Mangai Velunachiyar


Veera Mangai Velunachiyar was one of the queens in the 18th century in South India. She rebelled against the British Empire and fought for the freedom of India.  She was born in 1730 AD to the Mannar Sellamuthu Sethupathy and to Rani Sakandhimuthal of  Ramnad Kingdom.  She was the only daughter of this Royal family. The Royal couple had no male heir.  The royal family brought up the Princess, Velunachiyar, like  Prince of Ramnad due to this reason. She was trained in the skills of using weapons and also in martial arts like Valari, stick fighting  etc. She learnt horse riding and archery earlier. The Royal couple had engaged teachers to teach her many languages like French, English and Urdu. Thus this young brave Princess had excellent training in all war techniques. She was a scholar in many languages and was ready to rule the Ramnad Kingdom . She married Sivagangai Mannar Muthuvaduganathar at the age of sixteen.  In the year 1772 , the English invaded her kingdom . Velu Nachiyar heard that her husband Raja Muthu Vaduganathar and her daughter young Princess Gowri Nachiyar were killed in Kalaiyar Koil war. This war was held in Kalaiyar Koil palace. British troops attacked the palace under the command of Lt.Col. Bon Jour . She was very much worried and wanted to take revenge. Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai and Maruthu brothers sustained injuries. They promised to recapture the samasthan to punish the English. Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai, an incredible and distinguished person was the most powerful administer in Sivagangai samsthanam.  Thandavaraya Pillai, the loyalist served (1700-1773) as Palavay and also as Pirathani under the three rulers of Sivagangai samsthanam. He was responsible for the development of Sivagangai samsthanam . At first he served the King Sasivarna Periya Udaiya Thevar during 1730-1750. Later he served under Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar, the King during 1750-1772 . He also served as *Pirathani to the queen Rani Velu Nachiyar.Here Dalavay means  military chief and the Pirathani means  chief minister. Pirathani was responsible for  the improvement of Foreign affairs. Thus the two charges were the most important and also  powerful .
(Thandavaraya Pillai was the son of Kathavaraya Pillai who was an accountant and also as Karvar, (administer) in this samsthan.He rendered his service with loyalty from the beginning of this samsthanam. He administered well and helped in the development. The King Udaiya Thevar was very much pleased because of his good administration and granted him his hereditary management. It shows the significance of loyalty of Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai.   He advised Veera Mangal Velunachiar to move to different places often in order to avoid British invaders . Meanwhile Dalavay Thandavarayan Pillai wrote a letter to Sultan Hyder Ali on behalf of Velu Nachiyar to provide 5000 infantry and 5000 cavalry to defeat the British army. But unfortunately he passed away due to old age. She decided to meet Hyder Ali after the demise of Dalavay Thandavarayan Pillai  at  Mysore with the help of his son. She could explain in detail in Urdu all her problems with East India Company. She explained him her strong opposition of British regime. Hyder Ali was very much pleased and promised to help her in this conflict… He accepted her request with sympathy and provided the necessary military assistance. He orderd Syed Karki of Dindigul fort gladar to provide the required military equipments to Rani Velu Nachiyar. He released 5000 infantry and 5000 cavalry to Rani Velu Nachiyar immediately. Her troops advanced to Sivaganga with the help provided by Maruthu brothers. The Nawab of Arcot put so many hindrances to avoid the advancement of Rani Velu Nachiyar’s combined troops. The queen and Maruthu brothers overcame all hurdles. They geared up the troops and entered Sivaganga. She defeated the Nawab of Arcot and took him as a captivator. She re-captured her Sivaganga samsthan with the help of Hyder Ali and crowned as queen of the Sivagangai seemai. Velu Nachiyar is only the first queen who raised the revolt  against the British emperor. According to historians. Prof.Sanjeevi  mentioned in his ‘ Maruthiruvar’ book that ‘ the bravery queen Velu Nachiyar raised revolt against English emperor and fought for the freedom of India 85 years before Jhansi Rani’s freedom struggle in North . Venkatam further stated that Velu Nachiyar is India’s Joan of Arc.

[by sivashanmugam.referred books: The Madura country a manual..J.H.Nelson. The Sivaganga Zamindary..K.Annaswamy Aiyer.Maruthiruvar..Prof.Sanjeevi.Viduthalai porin vidi velligal… M.Balakrishnan..]


History

Kilavan Sethupathy
Sivagangai Aranmanai
The Kingdom of Ramnad originally comprised the territories of Ramnad, Sivagangai and Pudukottai of today. Raghunatha Sethupathy alias Kilavan Sethupathy, the 7th King of Ramnad reigned between 1674 and 1710. Kilavan Sethupathy, came to know of the bravery and valour of Peria Oodayan of Nalukottai, 4 kilometres from Sholapuram, near Sivagangai.
Vijaya Raghunatha Sethupathy
The King assigned to Peria Oodaya Thevar of Nalukottai a portion of land sufficient to maintain 1000 armed men. Vijaya Raghunatha Sethupathy became the 8th King of Ramnad in 1710 after the death of Kilavan Sethupathy. The King gave in marriage his daughter Akilandeshwari Nachiar, to Sasivarna Thevar, the son of Nalukottai Peria Oodaya Thevar. The King gave Sasivarna Thevar lands as dowry, free of taxation, sufficient to maintain 1,000 men. He placed him in charge of the fortresses of Piranmalai, Tiruppathur, Sholapuram and Tiruppuvanam as well as the harbour of Thondi. Meanwhile Bhavani Sankaran, the son of Kilavan Sethupathy conquered Ramnad territory and arrested Sundareswara Regunatha Sethupathy, the 9th King of Ramnad. Bhavani Sankaran proclaimed himself as the Rajah of Ramnad. He became the 10th king of Ramnad and he reigned from 1726 to 1729.
He quarrelled with Sasivarna Peria Oodaya Thevar of Nalukottai and drove him out of his Nalukottai palayam. KattayaThevar, the brother of the late Sundareswara Raghunatha Sethupathy fled from Ramnad and sought refuge with the Rajah of Tanjore Tuljaji. While Sasivarna Thevar was passing through the jungles of Kalayarkoi, he met a gnani (sage) named Sattappiah, who was performing Thapas (meditation) under a jambool tree near a spring called Sivaganga . The deposed king prostrated himself before him and narrated all the previous incidents of his life. The Gnani whispered a certain mantra in his ears (Mantra Opadesam) and advised him to go to Tanjore and kill a ferocious tiger, which was kept by the Rajah especially to test the bravery of men. Sasivarna Thevar went to Tanjore. There he became acquainted with Kattaya Thevar a refugee like himself. Satisfied with the good behaviour of Sasivarna Thevar and Kattaya Thevar, the Rajah of Tanjore wanted to help them to regain the States again, ordered his Dalavoy to go with a large army to invade Bhavani Sankarathevar. Sasivarna Thevar and Kattaya Thevar at once proceeded to Ramnad with a large army furnished by the king of Tanjore. They defeated Bhavani Sankara Thevar at the battle of Uraiyur and captured Ramnad in 1730. Thus Kattaya Thevar became the 11th King of Ramnad.
1st Raja Sasivarna Thevar (1730–1750 )
Kattaya Thevar divided Ramnad into five parts and retained three for himself. He granted the two parts to Sasivarna Thevar of Nalukottai conferring on him the title of "Rajah Muthu Vijaya Regunatha Peria Oodaya Thevar ".
2nd Raja Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar (1750–1772)
Sasivarna Peria Oodaya Thevar died in or about the year 1750. He was succeeded by his only son Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar. He was the second Rajah of Sivagangai. His wife Rani Velu Nachiar acted as "friend, philosopher and guide" to him. Tandavaraya Pillai was the able minister of Sivagangai. Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar granted commercial facilities to the Dutch only after the British rejected a similar offer, made to Colonel Heron. Further the aim of the British was to oblige the ruler of Sivaganga to serve the Nawab or to pay tribute to him or to dissuade them from establishing relations with foreign powers like the Dutch.
A two pronged offensive was made by the British. Joseph Smith from the east and Benjour from the west invaded Sivaganga Palayam in June 1772. The country was full of bushes of cockspur thorn, though there were villages and open spaces here and there. Rajah Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar, in anticipation of the invasion, erected barriers on the roads, dug trenches and established posts in the woods of Kalayarkoil. On the 21st of June 1772 the detachment of Smith and Benjour joined forces and occupied the town of Sivaganga.
The next day, the British forces marched to Kalayarkoil and captured the posts of Keeranoor and Sholapuram. Now, Benjour continuing the operations came into conflict with the main body of the troops of Sivaganga on the 25th June 1772. Muthu Vaduganatha Rajah with many of his followers fell dead in that heroic battle. The heroic activities shown in the battle field by Velu Nachiar is praised by the historians. The widow queen Velu Nachiar and daughter Vellachi Nachiar with Tandavaraya Pillai fled to Virupakshi in Dindigul. Later they were joined by the two able Servaigarars Vellai Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu.
3rd Rani Velu Nachiar(1772–1780)
Rani Velu Nachiar and her daughter Vellachi Nachiar lived under the protection of Hyder Ali at Virupakshi near Dindigul. Frustrated by the joining of forces against him, the Nawab ordered that Velu Nachiar and the Marudhu brothers were permitted to return to Sivaganga to rule the country subject to payment of Kist to the Nawab. Abiding by this Order, Rani Velu Nachiar accompanied by the Marudhu brothers and Vellachi Nachiar entered Sivaganga. An agreement was reached whereby Rani Velu Nachiar was permitted to govern the Sivaganga Country and Chinna Marudhu, the younger was appointed her minister and the elder Vellai Marudhu as the Commander-in-chief. Thus the widow Queen Velu Nachiar succeeded her husband in 1780.
Marudhu brothers(1748–1801)
The Queen Velu Nachiar granted powers to the Marudhu brothers to administer the country in 1780. Velu Nachiar died a few years later, but the exact date of her death is not known (it was about 1790). The Marudhu brothers were the sons of Udayar Servai alias Mookiah Palaniappan Servai and Anandayer alias Ponnathal. They were from Kongulu Street of Ramnad. They belonged neither to the family of the ancient poligars nor to their division of the caste.
Servaikaran was the caste title and Marudhu the family name. The Marudhu brothers served under Muthu Vaduganathan. Later they were elevated to the position of commanders. Two forms of the boomerang were used in India. These weapons were commonly made of wood. It was crescent-shaped, one end being heavier than the other, and the outer edge was sharpened. Their name in Tamil is 'valari' stick. It is said that the Marudhu brothers were experts in the art of throwing the valari stick. It is said that Marudhus used the valari in the Poligar wars against the British. The Marudhu brothers with 12,000 armed men surrounded Sivaganga and plundered the Nawab's territories. The Nawab on the 10th of March 1789 appealed to the Madras Council for aid. On 29 April 1789, the British forces attacked Kollangudi. They were defeated by a large body of Marudhu's troops. He was in close association with Veera Pandiya Kattabomman of Panchalankurichi. Kattabomman held frequent consultations with Marudhus. After the execution of Kattabomman in 17 October 1799 at Kayattar, Chinna Marudhu gave asylum to Kattabomman's brother Oomadurai (dumb brother). He issued an epoch-making Jumboo Deweepa proclamation to the people in the island of Jamboo to fight against the British whether they were Hindus, Mussalamans or Christians. At last the Marudhu Pandiyars fell victim to the cause of liberating the motherland from the British supremacy. Marudhu Pandiyan, the popular leader of the rebels, together with his gallant brother Vellai Marudhu were executed on the ruins of the fort at Tiruppathur in Sivaganga District on 24 October 1801. They showed their determination and spirit at the outset of the final struggle of 1801 by setting their handsome village Siruvayal on fire to prevent its being made use of by the British forces.
The Marudhu brothers were not only warriors noted for bravery, but were great administrators. During the period from 1783 to 1801, they worked for the welfare of the people and the Sivaganga Seemai was reported to be fertile. They constructed many notable temples and churches in the area of Sivagangai also a few notable places like Kalayar Kovil Marudhu Temple, Pallithammam Moovarasar Church with many Ooranis and Tanks.
After so many successions of legal heirs had ruled the estate, lastly Sri D. S. Karthikeya Venkatachalapathy Rajah succeeded to the estate of the late Sri. D. Shanmuga Rajah and he was the Hereditary Trustee of Sivaganga. Devasthanam and Chatrams consisted of 108 temples, 22 Kattalais and 20 Chatrams.
Sri. D.S. Karthikeya Venkatachalapathy Rajah died on 30 August 1986, leaving a daughter named Tmt.. Maduranthagi Nachiyar as his heir. At present, Tmt. Maduranthagi Nachiyar administers the Sivaganga Estate, Sivaganga Devasthanam and Chatram of Sivaganga Royal Family. Based on the "District Gazette" 1990 of Ramanathapuram, and the history of Sivaganga maintained by Samasthanam, Sivaganga District has been formed mostly with an area of entire Sivaganga Zamin and part of Ramnad Zamin.The nearest towns include Ilaiyangudi, Ramanathapuram, and Sivagangai.









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